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15 




INDIANS 

AT WORK 



Pvt. Walter R. Archambault, Sioux, U.S.M.C. 



MAY-JUNE 1943 



WE HONOR THESE DEAD 





ARIZONA 




Edison Jones 


Pima 




Richard C. Lewis 


Pima 




Snyder Burdette 


San Carlos 
CALIFORNIA 


Solomons 


LeRoy Wilder 


Hoopa Valley 


England 


Bennett Moore 


Hoopa Valley 




Fred F. Ortega 


Mission (Santa Ysabel) 
MONTANA 




Johnny McNeel 


Fort Belknap 


South Pacific 


Donald Abbott 


Fort Peck 


.New Guinea 


Ray Acker man 


Fort Peck 


New Guinea 


Duncan Dupree 


Fort Peck 


New Guinea 


Willis Morin 


Fort Peck 


New Guinea 


Frankie Spindler 


Fort Peck 


New Guinea 


Joseph Huntley 


Rocky Boy 


Corregidor 


Peter Piapot 


Rocky Boy 
NEVADA 


North Africa 


Ralph Sam 


Carson 


New Guinea 


Warren Wilson 


Carson 


Pacific 


Frank Murphy 


Carson 
NEW MEXICO 


Australian Area 


Juan Pena 


Santa Ana Pueblo 
NEW YORK 


Philippines 


Ernest White 


Mohawk 


Pearl Harbor 


Myron Ground 


Seneca 
NORTH DAKOTA 


Atlantic 


Lester Crows Heart 


Fort Berthold 


North Africa 


Harvey Rice 


Sioux 
OKLAHOMA 


Philippines 


Philip Coon 


Creek 




Henry Nolatubby 


Chickasaw 


Pearl Harbor 


Quanah Fields 


Cherokee 




James Willis Bench 


Cherokee 




Billy McWhirt 


Osage 




Joe Tuggle 


Osage 




Charles Dushane, Jr. 


Quapaw 
OREGON 


North Africa 


Floyd Joseph Day 


Grand Ronde-Siletz 


Philippines 


Norman Strong, Jr. 


Grand Ronde-Siletz 
SOUTH DAKOTA 


Dutch Harbor 


John C. Waldron 


Sioux 
WISCONSIN 


Battle of Midway 


Joseph Skye 


Chippewa 


South Pacific 


WUliam Soulier 


Chippewa 





(Note: This list of names and those that appear elsewhere in the maga- 
zine are incomplete. We plan to make additions or corrections when- 
ever Indian Service employees or relatives of the Indians in military 
service are able to furnish us the necessary information. For other 
casualties, see page 35.) 



MEMORIAL DAY 1943 



"...It is the peoples sweat that is to 
earn all the expenses of the war, and 

their blood which is to flow " 

Thomas Jefferson 



INDIANS AT WORK May-June 1943 

We Honor These Dead (list) Inside Front Cover 

Editorial John Collier Page I 

A Letter from North Africa— .Bill Zeh 5 

Awards For Valor. . 9 

A Memorial Day Tribute Eleanor Williams II 

Missing In Action (list) -.26 

Prisoners of War (list) -28 

Among Those Wounded (list) 29 

A Few Words From Kansas H.E. Bruce 31 

A Former Road Engineer 34 

Lest We Forget 35 

War Bond Purchases Jeanne Clark 37 

The Joneses and Attu Edna Portwood 40 

Science And The Future D'Arcy McNickle and 

Willard Beatty -43 







.. 




AT WORK 

A Ntms Shaet For INDIANS and t no INDIAN SERVICE 



VOLUME XI MAY-JUNE 1943 NUMBER I 

My friends--all the Indians- -you are tired, perhaps, of hearing that this World 
War is a crisis for all our human life. You know our cause is right and you give all 
that you are, all that you have. Long, long it will be remembered, by millions of 
your fellow-Americans — yes, and by your friends in other lands — that you Indians are 
giving all you have, all you are, to the cause of human freedom, now. 

Yet — though you may be tired of the many words=-I venture, in this memorial 
issue of your magazine, to use words again. Words are so much less than deeds, yet 
we human creatures are the only ones of God's species on this planet who possess 
the gift, and the weakness, of words. 

You, Indians, have only just now come out from a long dawn. For twenty thou- 
sand years of your life you were the sole human beings in this hemisphere. Tree- 
ring history shows you had a developed culture at the time of Christ. You have been 
in contact with the other races for just one fiftieth of your time in North and South 
America! 

Man on this planet--this earth of ours--has perhaps a thousand million years 
yet to live. In all the starry heavens, it may actually be that our little radiant planet — 
our earth- -alone is the home of life and consciousness. And man on this earth has a 
thousand million years to go. 

What was there, contained within that long dawn of your Indian life now pass- 
ing out into the world? 

There was love--love of earth, of creatures and of man--of the race. 

There was love of God, univerally expressed. 

First Pima boy to die in this war was Corporal Richard C. Lewis, 
Marine, in South Pacific. Six hundred Pima and Papago attended a 
memorial service in his honor February 1943. He enlisted in the ma- 
rines during his third year at Arizona State Teachers College. 



There was the art and the devotion of the production of noble, happy person- 
ality through tribal ministrations, tribal disciplines, tribal challenges and summonses 
in behalf of the great Angel who abides, silent, in the deeps of men. 

There was the central principle of all art, the almost lostwellspring of civili- 
zation—the art that shapes spirit into human, social forms I 

There was that kind of a democracy. 

Oh Indians, it must be a dawn- -that long life of yours which has only begun- - 
not a lost golden age. 

So, to the present World War. The war is being fought for all those values of 
your long, your twenty-thousand-years-long dawn. The war is being fought against a 
veritably dreadful enemy who is seeking to blot your long dawn into a night of eter- 
nal prison-houses and torture engines. Indeed, this is your war, Indians of North and 
South America as well as of the United States 1 

But never--and this is the most important word- - never is there a significant 
war only fought against an external enemy. 

Least of all is this war~-this world-war and world-onset- -a war only waged 
against the external enemy, the Hitler, the Mussolini, the Japanese dictators. 

Always--and in this war as never in an earlier one--the final battleground is 
at home--yes, even within the brain and heart of the you and the me. 

What a victory can we help to win! We shall have victory over the external 
enemies. If we can also have victory over that which, within our own nation and with- 
in our own individual souls, may be released because of the war~-the age old hates, 
the prejudices, the fears, the suspicions ;*if we can be victorious over these, then and 
then only the "long dawn" of the Indians will be merged into the "long day" of the 
human race. All other races have had their "long dawns," too. The day, into which 
these dawns can merge, is the thousand- million- year day which can be the good life 
of freed men on this earth. 



Carey McWilliams, in "Brothers Under the Skin" (Little, Brown and Com- 
pany, $3.00), has made an irresistably interesting and persuasive statement of the 
problems of the minorities in our country. Incidentally, he has made one of the best 
statements about Indians, historically and in the present; and no better account of the 
Indian philosophy of today has been given by anybody. 

The book treats of the Indians, the Chinese, the Mexicans, the Japanese, the 
Negroes, the Hawaiians, the Puerto Ricans and the Filipinos. 

Particularly interesting to workers in Indian Service will be McWilliams' 
treatment of present-day Indian Service as the type of national action which, with 
some adaptations, might well be extended to other ethnic minorities. 




\ 



e 



V 



In the Women's Second Army (left to right) Cecelia Hawthorne, Navajo; 
Lorene Cambridge, Navajo; Betty Porter, Creek; and Hazel 
Cummings, Pawnee. Official W.A.A.C. Photo. 



The excellent introduction carries the perspective out to the Indians of the 
hemisphere. 

The book has force and it has beauty. Every American should read it. 

Carey McWilliams is known as an authority, perhaps the foremost one on 
migratory labor. Until a few months ago he was chief of the Immigration and Hous- 
ing Commission of the State of California. 

There is not the space for much quotation from this moving book. I do, how- 
ever, quote Mr. McWilliams' conclusions, drawn from the study of Indian Service, on 
page 76. 

"While the (Indian) problem has its own background, its own peculiarities, its 
own complications, still I believe that there are certain conclusions of a general na- 
ture that can be drawn from the new policy: 

"l. I believe that this experience has demonstrated that science has an ex- 
tremely important contribution to make to the solution of minority problems, if this 
knowledge can be related to action programs. 

"2. I believe that the Indian Service experience indicates that before science 
can make an effective contribution to such problems, scientific research must be 
purposively directed toward the problems themselves; that to utilize such scientific 
knowledge, it must, somehow, somewhere, find a focus in government through agen- 
cies directly concerned with the problems. To accumulate research without devis- 
ing means for its application merely creates a cultural lag between research and 
policy. 

"3. I believe that the Indian Service has demonstrated that there is great 
merit, as Mr. Ward Shepard has said, in 'the principle of the over-all, the integral, 
the simultaneous, the all-out attack on the complex of problems (of the Indian) in its 
entirety. This method is at the opposite pole from the dispersive and discrete, the 
haphazard and unarticulated application of science to human welfare which had dis- 
tinguished this age of much knowledge and little wisdom. And this principle of ac- 
tion has a surprising human result; it unlocks unsuspected depths of spirit and will 
and creative purpose in common men, whether their skins are white, black or red.' 
In other words, scientific knowledge should be applied to such problems as part of an 
over-all integrated plan for their rehabilitation as groups. This is the point that Mr. 
Collier has in mind when he says that the Indian Service aims 'to incorporate the 
group into the .national system' and that it seeks to 'reach the individual through his 
re- enfranchised group.' 

"4. I believe that any administrative agency concerned with minority prob- 
lems should not attempt to monopolize the whole sphere of administrative activity; 
but that it should seek to bring to bear upon the problems within its field all of the 
rapidly expanding resources of government: local, state, and federal. 

"5. I believe that the bast method to be pursued, in working out an adminis- 
trative approach to the problem of minorities, is that of indirect administration — that 
is, working through the organized group, helping the group to help itself. 



"6. I believe that it is sheer obscurantism to contend, in the face of the achieve- 
ments of the Indian Service, that the resources of government cannot be effectively 
used to bring about a better adjustment of minority groups. If the Indian Service can 
reduce Indian death rates, the same death rates among Negroes can be reduced by 
the same or similar methods. The special problems of other colored minority groups 
are no more 'insoluble' than the Indian problem. 

"7. I believe that the Indian Service experience indicates that the preserva- 
tion, enrichment, and stimulation of native cultures holds great promise of enriching 
our entire cultural heritage; and that there is nothing undemocratic or invidious about 
regarding minorities, for administrative purposes, as special groups 

"Finally I believe that colored minorities face aproblem which, as Mr. Collier 
has stated (with reference to the Indian), 'is in essence a problem of the whole world 
and one which must be solved if we are to achieve an ordered stability in the inter- 
national and internal relations of states. It is the problem of reconciling the rights 
of small groups of people to cultural independence with the necessity for larger eco- 
nomic units demanded by modern methods of production and distribution. This is the 
problem of small states and small cultural groups everywhere.' If a solution of this 
problem can be effected in the United States, then there is at least reason to believe 
that a similar solution might be made of similar world problems." 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

(Note: The following letter was written to Mr. Collier by Major William H. Zeh, for- 
mer Regional Forester in the Indian Service. Major Zeh has been on active duty 
with the Army Air Force since June 1942.) 

Somewhere in North Africa, 
March 18, 1943. 

Dear Mr. Collier: 

I do think that I am not violating any military secret when I say that we are 
now in the much heralded rainy season. We are literally stuck in the mud. From the 
standpoint of the natives this rain is very welcome and much needed to make their 
crops. Very little rain falls during the summer in this region. In general, this re- 
gion quite intrigues me. It resembles our Southwest in many respects. Even the na- 
tive population, when viewed from the distance with their flocks of sheep, can be imag- 
ined to be Navajos. 

In many instances, I find the Land Management problems of this region iden- 
tical to those of our own Southwest region. Overgrazing is prevailing in practically 
all areas outside the irrigated or the intensely cultivated sections. To obtain addi- 
tional range the Arab has in past decades set fire to the wooded and forested mountain 
slopes. The result, of course, is easily imagined. Slopes that should produce forage 



and forest are being eroded through overgrazing or an attempt to raise grain on the 
shallow soil. Some attempts here and there have been made by French Engineers to 
check erosion and lean see our own early mistakes at erosion control all over again. 
Many of the grasses that we experimented with on the Papago and in California would 
be ideally suited to revegetate these overgrazed areas. The great shortage of fire 
wood in most sections (yes, I never froze quite as much anywhere in the U. S. as I 
have here) and the fact that some tree, species do very well here, should make the 
growing of trees not only beneficial to stream flow, etc., but alsr a profitable under- 
taking. 

To see the small herds of nondescript sheep and goats takes you back to the 
Western Navajo area in the year 1920 or thereabouts. The cattle run high to soup 
bones and hide but very low to steaks. Many areas I have seen would lend themselves 
to irrigation farming but I have seen very few structures for the impounding of water. 
I have seen some good looking locations. The farming methods used are very primi- 
tive, 6 oxen and a team of horses pull an old wooden plow which the plowman can carry 
on his shoulders when he moves to another field. 

The greatest difference in working out the land management problems here 
would be the handling of the human element. The Arab is not very ambitious and his 
background and religion would have to be carefully studied and recognized in relation 
to the solution of the land management problem. 

Recently I looked down from the heights ofC=-=-=- to the valley below which 
extends northward to the high mountains. It is a magnificent view, and one which I en- 
joy at every possible opportunity. The coloring of the reddish soil on the hill slopes 
and the fresh green vegetation present a pleasing contrast. One whole hillside was 
delicately tinted with the bloom of the peach and the almond and white cottages with 
red tiled roofs fit peacefully into the landscape of a war torn country. It is a land- 
scape, old, more than 2,000 years old. It has been inhabited and fought over by the 
Phoenicians, the Romans, the Arab, the Turk and the European in bloody battles and 
still it is beautiful and refreshing and inspiring. The valley, the mountains, the sun, 
the clouds and the shadows that make up this fascinating picture have suffered little 
by the presence of "mighty man." 

Behind me lies the city itself, also more than 20 centuries old. It is built on 
a high rock cliff and was once a formidable fortress. One is compelled to stop, to 
think and to meditate. But the thoughts that pass through one's mind are not refresh- 
ing and are not inspiring. How depressing the sights of disease and poverty. Dark, 
narrow, ill- smelling streets, crawling with human creatures in rags, and ravaged by 
disease 1 I never realized in what abject poverty and filth human beings can exist. I 
wander through some of the streets, (the M. P. is not looking); a cold, chill wind sweeps 
down from the mountains and a drizzling rain sets in. I meet two small native child- 
ren, the boy perhaps of four, and the girl of three years, both barefoot, dirty and clad 
in theraggedest of rags--and then not too many. The little sister walks closely to the 
side of her brother and he carefully covers her head and shoulders with some of his 
raffs and under this protecting cover they smile happily at each other as they pass by. 

At another street, in the niche of a building, a bit out of the wind and rain hud,- 
dles a beggar woman in filth and rags. Beside her stands a tiny little girl, barefoot, 
snuggling close to her mother who is telling her a funny little story. The child laughs 
happily as she puts her grimy little hands to her mother's face in a loving gesture. 




Miss Grace Moore and 
Miss Margaret Quinn, Indi- 
an Service nurses, were in 
the Jap bombing of Una- 
laska a year ago. Neither 
was injured but the hospital 
was demolished. 
Photo. Seattle PosMntelli- 
gencer 



Suddenly I recall this morning's communique- -over 1,000 men, young men — 
were killed in battle yesterday! How many today- -tomorrow! 

What is the answer? What is the answer? Continually echoes through my mind. 

The fertile valley to the north, the flowering hillside, the sun, the shadows, 
and the clouds, this whole country fought over and lived in from the days of the Phoe- 
nicians, still is beautiful. Its beauty and freshness seems to have suffered little from 
human contact. 



I seem to feel that if the beauty of Nature can survive "civilization" for over 
2,000 years and love and affection can survive abject poverty, suffering and misery, 
then surely a Phoenix can rise from the ashes of this war! 

No question about it, this war will have to be brought to a decisive end by our 
generals; however, of equal and more lasting importance will be the recognition of 
the oneness of the human race with a correct evaluation of the relative position of 
each race in the large family of races so that many of the causes of wars can be re- 



duced or neutralized to a point where they will become ineffective. This is going to 
be a hard job and will require clear, cool scientific and business minds, which are 
somehow guided by the star of idealism and warmth and understanding of the human 
nature. 

I just realized that if I do not stop writing soon I shall have to start another 



page so I shall cease firing, 
the Indian Service. 



Please extend my greetings to all my old friends in 

Very sincerely, 

(Sgd.) Bill Zeh 



At the U.S. Navy Pre — flight School, Athens, Georgia, Raymond West, Cheyenne, one of five brot 
in military service, issues athletic equipment to Marine Corps Technical Sergeant Mahlon White, 
eca from New York. Waiting their turn are Naval Aviation Cadets Richard C.Thompson (L) and ( 
Folsom, Jr. (R) both of whom are Choctaw. U.S. Navy Pho 




Awards For Valor 





SILVER STAR 

11 

| ■ 

/ .1 ... \l 




DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS 

Lt. Charles Dushane, Jr., Quapaw, Oklahoma * 
Sgt. Arthur Belgrade, Fort Peck, Montana 
Pvt. Charles Ball, Fort Belknap, Montana 

DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL 

Maj. Gen. Clarence L. Tinker, Osage, Okla. * 

SILVER STAR 

Sgt. Ralph Sam, Carson, Nevada * 

Sgt. Joseph Red Door, Fort Peck, Montana 

PURPLE HEART 

Lt. Charles Dushane, Jr., Quapaw, Oklahoma * 
Lt. Meech Tahsequah, Oklahoma 
Corp. Herman Boyd, Colville, Washington 
PFC Joseph Skye, Chippewa, Wisconsin * 
Pvt. William Saluskin, Yakima, Washington 
Johnny Minugh, Fort Belknap, Montana 

DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS 

Capt. Vernon F. Newton, Chippewa, Minn. 

NAVY CROSS 

Harold F. Dixon 

Am MEDAL 

Lt. (jg) Richard Balenti, Cheyenne-Haida, Okla. 

Staff Sgt. Barney Old Coyote, Jr., Crow, Mont. 

John Crowder 

Tech. Sgt. Pruitte L. Clements 

Pvt. Fred J. Littlewolf, Chippewa, Minnesota 

Jack C. Hickman 




lUffii 




PURPLE HEART 




NAVY 
CROSS 



* Awarded posthumouslv. 



10 




War Chief Joseph 

In reading of the retreat of the German Afrika Korps under Marshal Rommel 
as a great achievement of modern times, one is reminded of the Nez Perces' thou- 
sand mile retreat under their wise and beloved leader, Chief Joseph. American gen- 
erals whose troops flanked on every side Joseph's small band of men, women, and 
children stated that Joseph conducted the most scientific campaign ever waged against 
the U. S. Army. 

Few men in human history have fought for the cause of liberty as long as this 
Nez Perce chief. During the 33 years of his leadership, Joseph sought every peace- 
ful means to saye his people and their lands and only with a heavy heart resorted to 
warfare. After he became War Chief of the Nez Perce, not a single act of atrocity 
was committed against the whites. And after his surrender in 1877, Joseph, despite 
many broken promises on the part of the United States, kept his promise never to 
take up arms again. 

Once Joseph made this plea - the cry of all oppressed men throughout the world: 
"Let me be a free man - free to travel, free to stop, free to work, free to trade where 
I choose, free to choose my own teachers, free to think and talk and act for myself - 
and I will obey every law. or submit to the penalty." A Liberty Ship was recently 
christened "Chief Joseph. 



11 

A Memorial Day Tribute 

Indian Warriors Of Today And Yesterday 

By Eleanor Williams 

On this Memorial Day when Indians and whites alike will honor, in Lincoln's 
Immortal words, "the brave men, living and dead" and in their memorial services 
"take increased devotion to that cause for which these honored dead gave the last 
full measure of devotion", so may the aboriginal peoples of the world, and particu- 
larly minorities, gain renewed faith through the history of our first and most vivid 
racial minority, the American Indian. 

Far from feeling oppressed and submerged, the Indians fight for their coun- 
try today with money, goods, and men, and with the same spirit they once fought to 
save their lands from the white man. In comradeship under arms, and in friendly co- 
operation on the assembly line, the Indians are proving to many Americans for the 
first time and to the world that the Indian is as much a part of our nation's present 
as is his glorious past. 

Although few in numbers, the Indians are serving effectively in both military 
and industrial war work, and in some important branches have demonstrated gifts so 
outstanding as to make them preeminent. There are less than a half million Indians 
in all of North America. Yet in every decisive encounter of this great war, Indians 
have distinguished themselves on battlefronts ranging around the globe. 

Something between 15,000 and 20,000 Indians are found among the military 
ranks of our men and women. Probably an equal number of Indians are employed in 
war industry. And of those who remain at home- -to paraphrase a statement made toy 
Superintendent H. E. Bruce, of Potawatomi Agency, Kansas- -very few are engaged 
in occupations for the service of civilians, the discontinuance of which in most Ameri- 
can communities would completely disrupt the routine of life, as the white man knows 
it. 

In a speech recently Superintendent Bruce described the Indians of Kansas in 
the spring of 1943 in these words--and his description fits many another Indian com- 
munity in the United States: 

"Those who are not under arms are producing food or they are employed in 
war industries and in war construction. Very few are engaged in occupations for the 
service of civilians." 

The so-called reservation Indian put over 15 million dollars' worth of food on 
the market last year. Despite labor shortages, many tribes have promised to up that 
record by one third this year. Beef, mutton, poultry, fish, and grains constitute the 
Indians' chief contribution to the United Nations' larder. 

The tribes under the jurisdiction of Potawatomi Agency are a good example 
of Indian war effort. (Some sidelights are told elsewhere in this issue.) Of a normal 
resident population of 1,600, Superintendent Bruce reports that 10 percent are now in 
military service. Three out of every five, or 92, of those in the service are volun- 
teers. And of the men in the service, more than one out of every five, or 33, have 
become non-commissioned officers. 



12 



Indians hive figured frequently in the war news dispatches --in some instances 
identified only as "an Indian" and in others by name without reference to Indian blood. 
On all the battlefronts mentioned in the headlines, Indians have fought and bled. At 
Pearl Harbor, Corregldor, on Bataan, in the Solomons, on Guadalcanal, in New Guinea, 
in the Dieppe raid, in North Africa, in the Aleutians. Indians patrol the high seas 
with the courageous men of the Merchant Marine. 

(More will be told of individual Indian bravery on the front lines later in this 
article.) 

To those who have worked with the Indian in recent years, his ability to han- 
dle the heavy machinery of modern warfare and his physical stamina on the battle- 
front are praiseworthy but not surprising. Less certain were the psychological reactions 
of our small isolated Indian communities to the world crisis. One would expect the 
Indians to be confused and perplexed by the war situation. Essentially they are a rural 
people. Many of them live in remote areas, speak only their native languages, and 
have little access to newspapers, radio, or other forms of communication. How could 
they be expected to understand the clash of ideologies which has precipitated the world 
crisis? 

Yet when the call goes forth for volunteers, when the drive is on for bigger 
Bond purchases, when the war relief agencies ask for more money, the Indians' quiet 
but never-falling response is a source of inspiration to those of us privileged to live 
and work among them. Despite barriers of language, news from the battlefronts gets 
around quickly in an Indian community. Many an elderly full-blood who refuses to 
speak English will point on a map to an island of the Pacific and indicate withpride 
that his grandson is there. 

Seldom, if ever, do Indians complain about the red-tape or other inconveniences 
of war-time living, report Indian Service superintendents-wthe kind of criticism so 
freely given in other quarters. The Indian tries patiently to understand what is needed, 
and when he gives, it is a privilege rather than an Irksome duty. 

In attempting to evaluate the Indian's intellectual attitude towards this war, 
one recalls that the Indians, alone among conquered peoples, refused to submit to 
slavery. The early corporations which colonized this country were forced to rely 
heavily for labor on indentured servants (white persons from England) to till the soil, 
and later on Negroes kidnapped from Africa and brought here in chains. (Some South 
American Indians were forced to submit to exploitation from the earliest times and 
continue to be exploited today.) 

White colonists found on North American shores a proud people- -friendly enough 
to show the strangers how to cultivate the soil and hunt the wild animals- -but utterly 
unwilling to accept the white man and his coproration as master. Encircled by sheer 
numbers, the Indians were faced with the alternatives of extinction or of moving on- 
ward. The Indians' westward retreat across the continent represented a compromise 
but still a militant desire to be free. Indian leaders who signed away their peoples' 
rights to vast tracts of land were motivated by the desire to see their people free. 
Some tribes became extinct, and many were impoverished; but despite the forced mi- 
grations and abandonment of former ways of living, remnants of their culture per- 
sisted and still do until this day. 




laman Jack A. lyoll, Yakima of Warm 
irings, Oregon, is in the South Pacific. 



TWO BROTHERS 



Pvt. Francis B. lyalt, Yakima of Warm 
Springs, Oregon, is reported a prisoner. 



Indian Service officials who meet today with delegations from those tribes 
whose culture has not completely disintegrated say that the delegates come as emis- 
saries of good will to discuss a problem of their people with the United States Govern- 
ment. They are more deeply conscious of their tribe as a living integral factor in the 
history of our nation, in its courts, and in the halls of Congress than is the average 
white American of his own hometown. The Indian leaders make long speeches to this 
effect (often an interpreter is required) and the hope is expressed that a solution can 
be reached in a spirit of peace and friendship—a solution satisfactory not only to mem- 
bers of their tribe but also to the United States Government. These leaders in whom 
reposes the heritage of a great people are aware that the white man has broken his 
promises in the past, that by legal chicanery he has taken their lands, but seldom do 
they exhibit rancor or bitterness in their negotiations with- Federal officials. Wise 
older Indian leaders represent the quintessence of patience, courtesy, kindliness- 
virtues embodied in a deep heritage. 

There has never been any reason to fear the Indian's heritage--our own is 
much more fearsome. Testimony to the Indian s loyalty to his country and his insti- 
tutions is written in blood on the battlefields of America and in foreign lands. What- 
ever the white man's political issues may have been in other wars, the Indians have 
fought and fight today to save the country which is their own. That is their heritage- - 
the rich heritage of America. 



In this Memorial Day issue, it seems fitting to recall that the Indians' excep- 




Last of the U. S. Scouts. Two Apaches, Pvt. William Major and Pvl 
Andrew Paxson patrol an isolated post. U.S. Army Signal Corps Pho< 

tional war service does not begin with this second World War. In thelist of recipients 
of the Congressional Medal of Honor, the highest award for valor bestowed by our 
Government since 1862, Indian names appear in numbers out of proportion to the size 
of the Indian population. 

Perhaps best known are the Indian scouts who have served the United States 
Army, in our own wars, and in warfare against Indian tribes. Seven Apaches, trusted 
with fire protection and other patrol duties serve with the 25th Infantry today at Fort 
Huachuca, Arizona. They are the remaining representatives of the United States Scouts, 
a branch of the Army since 1866. In earlier days the Indian scouts served as guides, 
to reconnoiter, to counsel. A maximum force of 1000 was authorized, and detach- 
ments were scattered among Army posts on the frontier. They took part in the cam- 
paign against Geronlmo, and from 1870 until the end of the Indian campaigns, were 
in 288 engagements. 

Several months ago, the commanding officer at Fort Huachuca proposed that 
the U. S. Scouts be increased to 30. The Army ceased accepting Scout enlistments 
in 1923, but for jobs which can be done only on horseback, the commanding officer 
felt these remaining 7 Apache scouts everyday prove their usefulness and their or- 
ganization should not be allowed to die. 

In the American Revolution, Choctaw scouts served under George Washington, 
Daniel Morgan, Anthony Wayne, and John Sullivan. Indians from many tribes were of 
great assistance to the young untrained American Army during the Revolution. A com- 
pany of Catawba warriors served with Colonel William Thomson's rangers in the de- 
fense of Fort Moultrie, June 28, 1776. 

The famous Choctaw leader, Pushmataha, who was commissioned a brigadier 
general by Andrew Jackson, is considered by some students of history the greatest 



15 



Indian who ever lived. He is ranked with the famous Southern pioneers- -Dale, Clai- 
borne, Jackson and others--as having done as much toward saving the white population 
south of the Ohio River in the early nineteenth century as Andrew Jackson himself. 
The astute Tecumseh, Shawnee, who was commissioned by the British to stir up an- 
tagonism among the Indians and enlist them on the side of the British in the War of 
1812, asked Pushmataha to lead the Choctaws and Chickasaws against the American 
forces. Pushmataha told Tecumseh that the Choctaw Nation had three chiefs, not him 

alone, and before entering war, it was the custom to call a general meeting of the 
people and abide by the will of the majority. Tecumseh, considered one of the most 
powerful orators of the day, asked Pushmataha If he might speak at such a general 
meeting, and Pushmataha consented. 

At a great council of the Choctaws and their ally, the Chickasaw, Tecumseh 
talked lengthily on all the wrongs perpetrated on the Indians since the landing of Col- 
umbus. The Indian listeners appeared visibly moved. Then Pushmataha spoke brief- 
ly. He reminded his tribesmen of their treaty with the United States Government. 
Even though the Shawnees and other tribes may have suffered at the hands of the 
whites, Pushmataha pointed out, the Choctaws were living peaceably beside the whites 
who paid them a good price for their furs and skins. War is an awful thing, Pushma- 
taha said, and we should have to kill our white associates we see everyday. 

When Pushmataha had spoken, the Choctaw warriors showed their approval 
by throwing their tomahawks on his side. A few appeared to waver, and Tecumseh, 
furious that he had lost the support of most of them, said to his own warriors in the 
Shawnee language, ''Pushmataha is a coward and the Choctaws and Chickasaws are 
squaws." 

Pushmataha, to Tecumseh's surprise, understood the Shawnee tongue, and In 
fury, he replied, "We have had no leaders stirring up strife to serve their selfish, 
personal ambitions (like yourself). I know your history. You are a monarch and a 
tyrant. Every Shawnee man, woman, and child must bow in humble submission to 
your will. The Choctaws and Chickasaws nave no monarchs. Their chleftans do not 
undertake the mastery of their people, but rather are they the people's servants, 
elected to serve the will of the majority. The people have spoken and they have spo- 
ken against you. Their decision has therefore become the law, and Pushmataha shall 
see that the law is carried out." 

Other tribes, according to historians, were Influenced by the decision of the 
Choctaws and Chickasaws and refrained from aiding the British, thereby greatly con- 
tributing to the Americans' victory. Pushmataha himself with 500 warriors fought in 
24 battles of the War of 1812. 

During the Civil War, great pressure was exerted on the Indians to serve the 
Union or the Confederate cause, particularly among the Five Civilized Tribes where 
slavery still reigned, an institution introduced to the Indians by Southern whites be- 
fore their removal to Indian Territory, On November 27, 1861, the Confederate Gen- 
eral, Albert Pike, who had previously made several treaties with the Indians, report- 
ed: "We have now In the service four regiments numbering in all some 3,500 men, 
besides the Seminole troops and other detached companies, increasing the number to 
over 4,000. An additional regiment has been offered by the Choctaws, and another 
can be raised among the Creeks." 




Pushmataha, Choctaw 
Drawn by Sam H. Ray, Navajo, 
From a B.A.E. photograph 



The last Conf ederate general to surrender - a f enr months after Lee's straen- 
der - was a Cherokee, Stand Watle. General Stand Watie led one of the two Cherokee 
regiments in the Confederate cause and fought at the battle of Pea Ridge. Later he 
commanded all the Indians in the Confederate forces in Indian Territory, with the ex- 
ception of the Choctaw. 

Eli Samuel Parker, a mixed blood Seneca and grandson of the celebrated Red 
Jacket, rose to the rank of brigadier general with the Union Army under General 
Ulysses S. Grant. Prior to the Civil War, Parker had been employed in Grant's home 
town, Galena, Illinois, as a civil engineer. Parker's distinguished service in the 
Vlcksburg campaign led Grant to select him as a member of his staff. Grant entrus* 
ted Parker with all his personal and official correspondence, and the articles of ca+ 
pitulation which Lee accepted on his surrender are written in Parker's hand, Hatac 
as President, Grant appointed Parker to the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 
He was an intimate friend and informant of Lewis H. Morgan whose book on Iroquois 
society was the first major contribution in the field of ethnology. 

In the first World War many Indians enrolled in Canadian forces before the 
declaration of war by the United States. Less than half the Indians were legally con- 
sidered citizens at that time, but many non-citizen Indians registered for Selective 
Service and many more enlisted- -regardless of their citizenship status. The Provost 
Marshal General in his 1918 report, states: "it is beyond doubt that many Indians! 
voluntarily registered who were not bound to do so. It will be seen that the rails 
of Indians claiming deferment was negligible as compared with the average for alii 
registrants; and that the ratio of Indian registrants inducted was more than twice as 
high as the average for all registrants." 



17 



Approximately 8,000 saw military service. In the last War, as in this war, 
many white Americans worked side by side with Indians for the first time. Countless 
veterans attribute to their commander in the last War the novel scheme of using In- 
dians speaking their own languages to confuse the Germans who had tapped American 
communication lines. 

According to an article in the U. S. Army Recruiting News, February 1941, 
the Germans on October 27, 1918 were reasonably sure the Americans would attack 
in* the vicinity of St. Etienne, but they wanted to know just where and when so they 
tapped the American telephone lines. They heard Americans talking, most loqua- 
ciously, but they couldn't make head or tail of what they were saying. While Germans 
still puzzled over the sounds, Americans in the 36th Division stormed upon Forest 
Farm, taking its defenders completely by surprise. Colonel A. W. Bloor, commander 
of the 142nd Infantry, said that one regiment possessed a company of Indians Who spoke 
26 different languages. These Indians were used repeatedly in preparation for the 
assault on Forest Farm, Colonel Bloor reported. 

This scheme with variations is being us2d by the armed forces in this war, 
and entire Indian platoons are in secret communications work. The military authori- 
ties have at their selection a wide range of Indian languages, some 50 to 100 distinct 
languages still being spoken today. 

lam told that in the last war the Indians were the coolest men to face the enemy 
under fire. Very few scientific studies have been made of Indian and white psycho- 
logical differences, if any, but it is interesting to note a statement in the Scientific 
American magazine, January 1927: 

"In psychiatric tests applied to thousands of soldiers in the last war, the red 
man, of all four races (white, yellow, black, and red) showed greater power to resist 
mental strain. An eminent authority insists this superiority is due to a spiritual 
poise that has come to the red man from a philosophy of life that makes God a uni- 
versal, omnipresent, benignant force in nature giving to the Indian the ability to stand 
fast- -a something which lies at the root of the race to which faith may be pinned, as 
well as his characteristic staunchness, dignity, self-respect and strength of mind." 

The war records in our Office are fragmentary, but included among them are 
the names of 331 Indians who were killed, 262 wounded, 54 decorated, and 64 who were 
commissioned officers. 

A few years before his death, Pushmataha had prophesied that "mixed up in 
the armies of the white man, the fierce war whoop of the Choctaw warrior shall strike 
terror and melt the hearts of an invading foe.' A hundred years later, in the first 
World War, it was a full blood Choctaw, Joseph Oklahombi, who is credited with hav- 
ing captured 171 Germans--a record rivaling that of Sergeant York. And a Chicka- 
saw, Otis Leader, was selected as the model American soldier. Sergeant Leader ^a 
portrait was painted before he left France. The portrait was hung in the French 
Federal Building, Paris. 

Both Oklahombi and Leader are still alive today. They live in their native 
state, Oklahoma, and their portraits hang in the rooms of the Oklahoma Historical 
Society, Oklahoma City. Oklahombi, who is 47 years old, recently received $3,000 
for the sale of some land. With $750 he built himself and his wife a neat one room 
house in Wright City, his home. The remaining $2,250 he Invested in War Bonds. 



18 



The World War record of Oklahombi, Leader and other Indians has already 
been touched on in the pages of this magazine and in other publications of this Office. 
The Commissioner of Indian Affairs in his 1918 report stated: 

"I reluctantly withhold a detailed account of the many instances of tribal and 
personal patriotism and of individual valor and achievement by the Indian soldiers in 
the service of botb Canada and, the United States that came to my attention during the 
year, for no record here would seem fittingly impartial that did not include the hun- 
dreds of noteworthy and authenticated incidents on the reservations, in the camps, and 
in France that have been almost dally recounted in the public print. The complete 
story would be a voluminous narration of scenes, episodes, eloquent appeal, stirring 
action, and glorious sacrifice that might better be written into a deathless epic by 
some master poet born out of the heroic travail of a world- embattled era." 

Among those serving in this war are Indians who served in the last War. Pri- 
vate Arthur Elm, Oneida-Sioux from Wisconsin, now with the 113th Station Hospital 
unit, was an expert machine gunner with the famed Red Arrow Division (the 32nd) and 
rose to the rank of sergeant during the last war. In the battle of Juvigny, north of 
Soissons, Pvt. Elm wiped out a German machine-gun nest almost single-handed. He 
received the Distinguished Service Cross and the Order of the Purple Heart. After 
three weeks in the hospital, Elm returned to the front in time to take part in the great 
Allied offensive of Chateau Thierry and the Argonne Forests, which ultimately brought 
the war to an end. 

Sergeant William Iron Elk, Pine Ridge Sioux, and now a radio operator in the 
Signal Corps, was wounded In action in the Meuse-Argonne and Ypres in the last war. 
Iron Elk is 42 years old. 

Recently retired from the Army with honor after 31 years of military service 
was 1st Sgt. Standley Hoklotubbe, full blood Choctaw. He was rated as an expert rifle 
shot and qualified as an expert gunner In the Coast Artillery-.. He had served innum- 
erous countries. At a battery dinner held In his honor April 2, 1943, Lt. Col. C. A. 
Horger stated, "His devotion to duty, his loyalty, and sterling soldierly qualities are 
worthy of emulation by all." 

During this war General Douglas MacArthur has publicly paid tribute to the 
Indians' fighting ability. In a cablegram from Australia, General MacArthur declared: 
"As a warrior, his (the Indian's) fame Is world wide. Many successful methods of 
modern warfare are based on what he evolved centuries ago. Individually he ex- 
emplified what the line fighter could do by adaptation to the characteristics of the 
particular countryside in which he fought. His tactics, so brilliantly utilized by our 
first great commander, George Washington, again apply in basic principle to the vast 
jungle-covered reaches of the present war." 

General MacArthur has expressed thedesireto meet personally all the Indians 
who serve under him. According to a letter from Sergeant Joe Dias, Mission Indian, 
who was stationed in the South Pacific last summer, he was summoned one day to the 
General's headquarters. Not knowing what to expect but fearing he had been held re- 
sponsible for some terrible offense, he approached the General in trepidation. But 
MacArthur put him at ease at once. He told SergeantDias that the Indians were great 
fighters and that he wanted to meet personally all the boys of Indian background. 





Photo by U.S. Marine Corps 



Once a Marine - twice a Marine, Wallace A. Murray, Sioux, was just out of 
Carlisle Indian School when he enlisted in the Marines during the first worldwar. 
After serving in Haiti, Cuba, and Santo Domingo, he returned to the Rosebud Res- 
ervation where he later became a member of the tribal council and helped write a 
tribal constitution and law and order code under the Reorganization Act. He re- 
enlisted in November 1942 and was sent to San Diego for another session of "boot 
training." 



20 



With his advanced troops in New Guinea, General MacArthur has hundreds of 
Indians from Montana and the Northwest under his command. George Weller, dis- 
tinguished war correspondent and winner of one of the Pulitzer prizes for journalism' 
this year, mentions Indians frequently in his dispatches. In an article dated April 8, 
Mr. Weller wrote: 

"The great young Northwest sent to Australia's defense its cowboys and gas 
station mechanics, farmers and school teachers, ranchers and students. Mixed with 
them were soldiers from all the other states. Indians have fought for the Allies in 
the sky and on the seas, but on no world front have America's original citizens been 
so well represented as here in the vine-hung jungle. 

''Along with miners from Montana, etc came the dark-eyed, untalkative 

sons of Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull; Yankton Sioux and Assiniboines from Fort Peck, 
Crow from Hardin, Montana; Cheyennes from Lame Deer, Montana, and Blackfeet 
and Piegans from Glacier Park; Snakes from Lewiston, Idaho; Nisquallies from Mount 
Rainier, Isquahalah from Spokane, Neah Bay fishermen from Port Angeles, Lapwais 
from Idaho, Toppenishes and Yakimas from Yakima Valley, Salish from Grand Cou- 
lee, and from Oregon, Paiutes and Klamaths from Sprague River, and Warm Springs 
Indians from Celilo Falls, Oregon. 

"Their allies are the slouch- hatted Australians, some city men who have, 
learned the jungle. Their enemy is the jungle-wise hatred-filled Jap who has been 

trained to die for the Emperor and who is fighting not, like them, to go home, but to 
hold an empire already won, and whose only formidable challenger is the American." 

In discussing the American-Australian campaign to recover Papua and the 
drive against Buna and Gona, George Weller writes: 

"Despite the Americans' and the Australians' great advantage in firepower, 
the rolling back of the Japanese has been accomplished through ability and deliberately 
directed 'patrolling and scouting'. The forest-wise sons of the Northwest are as adept 
at this as are the bush-born Australians." 

In another dispatch George Weller states that the drive to the sea had three 
earlier phases, Lt. Col. Harold Lindstrom of Poplar, Montana, being in charge of the 
third. Many Indians and Indian Service employees will recall Lindstrom who was in 
charge of the Indian CCC program on the Fort Peck Reservation for almost 5 years. 
Fort Peck boasted an entire Indian company in the National Guard, and Lindstrom and 
the Indian boys on CCC used to obtain leave in the summer to attend military camps 
for training. This company was mobilized in September 1940. 

The third phase of the drive to the sea led by Lt. Col. Lindstrom, having an 
equal number of American and Australian troops, involved cleaning up with tommy 
guns part of the shattered forest from the old American and Japanese front lines to 
"Huggins." Weller wrote: 

"Early thrusts from Huggins by Sgt. Joseph Red Door, Yankton Sioux (Fort 
Peck) leading the patrol, came into a Jap machine gun nest which opened vicious fire. 
The patrol 'hit the dirt' but Red Door jumped behind a tree. Wounded in hip and right 
foot, he threw two grenades into the nest, killing eight Japs. But machine gun fire still 
swept over the heads of the prone men. Then Sgt. Art Belgrade, Chippewa from Brock*- 



21 



ton, Montana, came boldly out into the open alone, firing a tommy gun as fast as he 
could jam in the clips, and reached the recumbent Red Door, swooped his brother 
brave upon his back and raced back 60 yards to safety. I was in the same engagement 
with Red Door, now twice decorated with his rescuer " 

In another April 8 dispatch, Mr. Weller describes the attempt to charge the 
Japanese motor pool which lay on Sananada road just above "Huggins." 

"Another American force, pushing from the other side of the motor pool, was 
led by 29 year-old Captain Duncan Dupree, of Poplar, Montana, a member of the Yank- 
ton Sioux tribe, who worked at the Fort Peck Indian Agency, had attended Wahpeton 
College, and was particularly admired by the division's Indians. With Lit. Kenneth 
Lfeibach, of Medicine Lake, Montana, Dupree was leading the attack under heavy fire. 
A mortar shell landed between Sgts. Jack Rogers of Choteau, Montana, and James 
Boland of Great Falls, Montana. Rogers was blown off his feet, and Boland was wounded 
in the side. Though Leibach had three wounds in the left side, and Dupree was gone, 
the attack continued straight through." On April 20, Weller wrote: 

"Indians like JohnBedder,of Wewoka, Oklahoma, a member of the Creek Tribe 
and a former truck driver, were indefatigable. Another former truck man, 21 year- 
old Willis Morin, who is a Chippewa-Sioux from Poplar, Montana, walked coolly for- 
ward into Jap anti-tank fire and loosed more than 300 bar rounds into their dugouts. 
A bullet struck him, passing through his temple and the sturdy, fun-loving, roly-poly 
Indian lived until he was carried to Popendetta Airfield where he died asJie was being 
loaded aboard the transport plane. 

"Of the red warrior's passing, Robert E. 'Did' Edeline, a fellow townsman of 
Poplar, but white, said to the writer; 

'"Morin had accounted for at least 25 Japs. When he reached the litter bear- 
ing jeep, he had a bandage over his eyes but was still conscious and said, "Well, Did, 
I'll see you in a few days." That boy had guts all the way through." 

In the Battle of Midway, America's first decisive blow against the Japanese 
Navy, two Indians figured prominently in the headlines, although most readers did not 
know that these American heroes were of Indian blood. The story of Major General 
Clarence L. Tinker, Osage, in command of the Hawaiian Air Forces is well-known. 
(A story of his life appeared in the May-June 1942 issue of "Indians At Work.") 

Commanding Torpedo Squadron 8, of which Ensign George H. Gay was the sole 
survivor, was John C. Waldron, Sioux from Fort Pierre, S, D. Lieutenant Commander 
Waldron is thought to be the first Sioux of the Cheyenne River jurisdiction and one 
of few Indians to graduate from the Naval Acaaemy at Annapolis. Recently an air- 
field in Texas was dedicated to his memory. 

According to the official Navy account the full fury of the U. S. Naval task 
force lying in ambush off Midway was poised to strike at the Japanese Navy, but ex- 
tensive reconnaissance failed to disclose the enemy. Then a lone squadron of 30 men 
and 15 planes led by Commander Waldron found the enemy. Without protection or 
support of any kind, Waldron's group launched an effective attack so desperately op- 
posed that only one member of the squadron, and no planes, came back. Waldron had 
said to his commanding officer before the take-off, "i have a well-trained squadron 
that asks only to share in the mission. We will strike, regardless of the consequences." 



22 



On the Navy's Roll 
of Honor is l_t. Comdr. 
John C. Waldron, Sioux, 
whose famed Torpedo 
8 Squadron began the 
Battle of Midway, and 
shattered itself in hero- 
ic attack. 




Approximately 40 minutes after Commander Waldron's Torpedo Squadron 8 
had located the enemy and shattered itself in its heroic attack, Lieutenant Commander 
Clarence Wade McCluskey, Jr., found the "lost" Japs and flashed the new course and 
location to the U. S. Naval task force. The entire Naval attacking force descended on 
the Nipponese fleet and lashed it with torpedoes and bombs. Three Japanese aircraft 
carriers were severly damaged, two battleships were hit, and one destroyer was be- 
lieved to have been sunk. There followed attacks during the rest of the day and by 
sundown of June 4, United States forces had gained mastery of the air in the region of 
Midway. 

A new Navy Torpedo Squadron 8 was formed shortly after the Battle of Mid- 
way to avenge the loss of Lieutenant Commander Waldron and his gallant crew. In 
14 action-packed weeks the new Squadron 8 torpedoed 14 Japanese warships, includ- 
ing two aircraft carriers and one battleship, and bombed one heavy cruiser and one 
light cruiser. 

In one of the best-sellers of the war, "Guadalcanal Diary", the author des- 
cribes a party of 25 Marines with their colonel who landed at a village one night where, 
rumor had it, the Japs were willing to surrender. The Marines ran smack into a Jap 




Commanding the new aircraft carrier 
U.S.S. Yorktown is Captain Joseph J. 
Clark, enrolled member of the Cherokee 
Nation. A graduate of the Naval Acad- 
emy, Capt. Clark has served in the Navy 
since 1917. 



ambush, and their colonel was the first man hit. Only three of the party escaped in- 
cluding a 22 year-old Indian, Sgt. Frank L. Few of Buckeye, Arizona. The story from 
"Guadalcanal Diary" follows: 

"Sergeant Few told me the story of the ill-fated expedition to Mantanikau. 

"'They got Colonel Goettbe in the chest right quick. Spaulding and I went up 
to him, but when I put a hand on him I knew he was dead. Just then I saw somebody 
close by. I challenged him and he let out a war whoop and came at me. My sub- machine 
gun jammed. I was struck in the arm and chest with his bayonet, but I knocked his 
rifle away. I choked him and stabbed him with his own bayonet.' 

"Knowing the colonel was dead, Few said, he started back to join our other 
marines who -had landed. Then he suddenly spotted a Jap in the fork of the two trees. 

'My own gun was still jammed,' he said, 'so I borrowed Arndt's pistol and shot the Jap 
seven times. I got my gun to working after that, but I couldn't use the magazine. I 
had to stick a cartridge in the chamber each time I wanted to shoot. I could only fire 
one shot at a time. Just then I saw another Tap. I let one go, and it hit him in the face. 
Then I bashed him with the butt of my gun. 

"When he got back to the main body of marines, Few found they were dug in 
for a fight. He dug in, too, using his helmet and hands, and there followed a long 
exchange of shooting. 




Lt.(j.g.) Richard P Balenti Cheyenne-Haida 

Won the Air Medal U.S. Navy, Photo. 




Barney Old Coyote, Crow, Twice decorated for v 



i,-n a~ Z ^ °} heT Americans had b een hit and the Japs were closing infer the 

kill. Spaulding had earlier made a break for the beach, Arndt followed. And then Few 
stripping down to his underclothes, made a dash for the water. 

'"It was the end of the rest of the beach,' Few said. 'The Japs closed in and 
hacked up our people. I could see swords flashing in the sun.' 

< *u * "^ Iff ? SWim fOUr and a half mUes to reach Kukum, and there are sharks 

feiT P :x^t^r^tJ hen J talked to him only a few hours iater ' he did not 

Staff Sergeant Barney Old Coyote, Jrv, a Crow Indian, gunner on a bomber 
based in North Africa helped sink an enemy submarine which was stalking a troop and 
supply convoy in the Western Mediterranean recently. As the submarine crash-dived 
in hope of safety, the crew released depth charges which caused the submarine to ex- 
plode. 

"There was no doubt that we hit our target," Sgt. Old Coyote said, "for in my 
position as lower gunner I could plainly see bubbles spouting up from the discharge 
of depth bombs. A few seconds later a small hump of water appeared followed by a 
geyser that leaped approximately 150 feet out of the water. I knew it was caused bv 
an explosion on the sub itself. 



25 



Four members of tke plane's crew, Including Sgt. Old Coyote, were awarded 
the Air Medal. 

Danny Fagen of Kiefer, Oklahoma, a pilot in the often-decorated 19th Heavy 
Bombardment Group, has been reported missing for a year. 

Montana, home of the Sioux, Assiniboin, Crow, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, and Flat- 
head Indians, has furnished to the armed services 9.3 per cent of the state's total 
Indian male population. In addition, nine Indian women have enlisted in the Women's 
Army Auxiliary Corps. Figures on the Indian men in the armed forces, as of March 
1, 1943, from Montana's seven Indian reservations are: 

Blackfeet 177 Fort Peck 180 

Crow 110 Rocky Boy 42 

Flathead M . Mm ..J73 Tongue River ... 39 

Fort Belknap.. 69 

TOTAL....790 

Among the Indian families who have five sons in the armed forces, the follow- 
ing have been called to our attention by Indian Service superintendents: 

Mrs. Jerry Crow, Seneca and Cayuga, Qn&paw Agency, Oklahoma 
Shannon. 18, mechanic in the Army Air Force; 
Chester. 26, Alaska; John. 23, 2nd Lt., U. S. Army; 
Vernon. 28, Camp Adair, Oregon; 
Melvln . 22, radio operator, U. S. Navy. 

Mr. Lightfoot West, Cheyenne-Arapaho, Oklahoma 

Harvey. Australia; Richard. Navy convoy duty; 
Robert and Ralph in Army training; 
Raymond. Athens, Georgia. 

Mr. Richard LeBeau, Sr., Sioux, Cheyenne River, South Dakota 
Theodore . 27; Casimer . 25; Michael . 23; 
Quinton. 21; Vincent . 20. 

Mr. and Mrs. George Boyd, Sr., Assiniboin, Fort Peck, Montana 
Lewis, in North Africa; Vernon . Ft. Wayne, Indiana; 
James, in Australia; Sam and Carl , in Marines. 

Mrs. Jesse Mason, Sr., Assiniboin, Fort Peck, Montana 
Gilbert. Alaska; Jesse Jr.. Southwest Pacific; 
Wesley. Fort Bliss, Texas; Victor . Great Lakes, 111. 
Lyle. with Army Engineers in California. 

Mrs. Maggie Williamson, Blackfeet Agency, Montana 
Murray Lee and Guy. Pacific Area; 
James and Shannon Patrick, in Army training; 
Parker . In Coast Guard. 



l\ 



** f5?r« 




Stuart Wagner, Blackfeet, 

Missing in North Africa 




v ? ' '1 M, 





& 






\ 



Douglas Miller, Great Lakes, 

Missing since the fall of Corregidor 



MISSING IN ACTION 



Joe Blacktooth 
Augustine Quevas 
Mike Soza 


CALIFORNIA 
Mission (Pala) 
Mission (Santa Ysabel) 
Mission (Soboda) 


Bataan 
Bataan 
Solomons 


George M. Dowd 
Dewey Young Bear 
Frank Jonas Sanache 


IOWA 

Sac and Fox 
Sac and Fox 
Sac and Fox 


Phillipines 


Stuart Wagner 
Percy J. Archdale 


MONTANA 
Blackfeet 
Fort Peck 


North Africa 
South Pacific 


Warren Wilson 


NEVADA 
Carson 


South Pacific 


Dick Seymour 
Alex Jackson 
Frank Doxtator 


NEW YORK 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 
Seneca 


Australia 

Africa 

Guadalcanal 



27 



Clarence L. Tinker 
Jesse Woolworth 
David Cross, Jr. 
Henry Reed 
Merrill Bevenue 
Jack C . Hickman 
Danny Fagen 
Harold B. Small ey 
Roy Tasso 



Alvin River 
Robert F. Lilley 



Albert Lemere 
Leonard Farron 



Douglas Miller 
James Loonsfoot 
George Green 



OKLAHOMA 
Osage 
Arapaho 
Arapaho 
Chickasaw 
Creek 
Choctaw 
Cherokee 
Osage 
Cheyenne- Arapaho 

SOUTH DAKOTA 
Cheyenne River 
Attended Flandreau 

WASHINGTON 
Colville 
Puyallup 

WISCONSIN 
Great Lakes 
Great Lakes 
Winnebago 



Battle of Midway 

Corregidor 

Phillipines 

Phillipines 

Phillipines 

New Guinea area 

Bataan 



China 
European Area 



Bataan 



Corregidor 
North Africa 
New Guinea 



* * * 



Also missing are Mr. and Mrs. C. Foster Jones, Teacher and Special Assis- 
tant, and the 45 natives of Attu. Their names are listed below. 



Men 



Women 



Children 



John Ardemonoff 
Peter Ardemonoff 
Gar men Golodoff 
Innokentl Golodoff 
Lavarenti Golodoff 
Metfe Golodoff 
Metrofan Golodoff 
Willie Golodoff 
Fedosa Hodikoff 
John Hodikoff 
Mike Hodikoff (Chief) 
Mikey Lokanoff 
Agafonda Prokopeuff 
Alec Prosoff 
Mike Prosoff 



Barbara Ardemonoff 
Anne Golodoff 
Olean Golodoff 
Angelena Hodikoff 
Anicea Hodikoff 
Anne Hodikoff 
Periscovia Horosoff 
Mary Lokanoff 
Anicea Prokopeuff 
Julia Prokopeuff 
Elizabeth Prokopeuff 
Mary Prokopeuff 
Martha Prosoff 



Sergius Ardemonoff 
George Golodoff 
Helen Golodoff 
John Golodoff 
John Golodoff 
Leonti Golodoff 
Mary Golodoff 
Neca Golodoff 
George Hodikoff 
Margaret Hodikoff 
Martha Hodikoff 
Belarian Prokopeuff 
Fekla Prokopeuff 
Stepan Prokopeuff 
Agnes Prosoff 
Blademer Prosoff 



■9 




Louis E. Williams, Sioux 



Edmund Jemison, Seneca 



Edmund Cornelius, Oneida 



PRISONERS OF WAR 



Johnny LaChappa 


Mission (Sanl 




IOWA 


Judy (Wabanasee) Wayne 


Sac and Fox 




KANSAS 


Edgar H. Goslin 


Kickapoo 




MINNESOTA 


Bernard A. Cyrette 


Chippewa 




MONTANA 


Joe Longknif e 


Fort Belknap 


Buddy Campbell 


Fort Belknap 


Marshall Wells 


Fort Belknap 


Lester Champagne 


Rocky Boy 


Edward Ladue 


Rocky Boy 




NEVADA 


Karl D. Tobey 


Carson 


Earl B. Williams 


Carson 




NEW MEXICO 


Bruce Klinekole 


Mescalero 


Homer Yahnozha 


Mescalero 


Jimmy K. Lujan 


Taos Pueblo 


Pablo Trujillo 


Taos Pueblo 


John Y. Begay 


Navajo 



CALIFORNIA Prisoner of: 



Italians 



Japanese (Bataan) 



Japanese 



Japanese (Philippines) 
Japanese (Philippines) 
Italians 



Japanese 
Japanese 



Japanese (Philippines) 

Japanese 

Japanese (Philippines) 

Japanese (Philippines) 

Japanese (Philippines) 





NEW YORK 




Edmund L. Jemison 


Seneca 
OREGON 


Japanese (Philippines) 


Francis B. Iyall 


Yakima 
OKLAHOMA 


(North Africa) 


Joseph Blackman 


Cheyenne- Arapaho 


Japanese (Philippines) 


George Antelope 


Cheyenne- Arapaho 


Japanese (Philippines) 


Ben Grayson 


Creek 


Japanese 


Chauncy Calvin 


Choctaw 


Japanese 


Silas C. Wolf 


Chickasaw 


Japanese 


William Sarty 


Creek 


Japanese 


Osborne L. Blanche, Jr. 


Choctaw 


Japanese 


James Hornett 


Cherokee 


Japanese 


Lewis West 


Cherokee 




Gilmore C. Daniels 


Osage 


Germans (RCAF) 


Ishmal Quinton 


Osage 


Italians 


Alec Mathews 


Pawnee 


Japanese (Bataan) 


Charles Captain 


Shawnee 
SOUTH DAKOTA 


Japanese (Corregidor) 


Louis E. Williams 


Sisseton 


Japanese (Philippines) 


Melvin F. Yellowcloud 


Rosebud 
WISCONSIN 


Italians 


Harvey Martin 


Stockbridge 


Japanese (Corregidor) 


Edmund Cornelius 


Oneida 


Japanese (Corregidor) 


Warren Powless 


Oneida 


Japanese (Philippines) 


Roy House 


Oneida 
OTHERS 


Japanese (Philippines) 


George W. Stringfield 




Japanese (Wake I.) 


Abner Clifford 




Japanese (Bataan) 


Enos Pelham 






Edwin Matheson 




Germans 



Wounded In Action 



Elmer Oxtra 



Vincent Monroe 
Michael P. Bighair 
Edwin Lieurance 
William Gros Ventre 
Martin Bearbelow 
Johnny Minugh 
Charley Ball 
Joseph Red Door 



MINNESOTA 
Chippewa 

MONTANA 
Blackfeet 
Crow 
Crow 
Crow 
Crow 

Fort Belknap 
Fort Belknap 
Fort Peck 



South Pacific 



Guadalcanal 
Tunisia 
Guadalcanal 
Guadalcanal 
North Africa 
Philippines 
Philippines 
New Guinea 



30 



Walter J. Hamilton 


NEBRASKA 
Omaha 


South Pacific 


Scotty N. Begay, 


NEW MEXICO 
Navajo 


South Pacific 


Leslie Tarbell 
Richard Day 


NEW YORK 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 


Guadalcanal 


Meech Tahsequah 
Ben Beaver 


OKLAHOMA 
Comanche 
Creek 


Egyptian Area ' 
Guadalcanal 


Kermit Swan 
Vernon Shelton 
Fred B. Larmer 


SOUTH DAKOTA 
Cheyenne River 
Cheyenne River 
Rosebud 


North Africa 
Solomon, Islands 
European Area 


Herman Boyd 


WASHINGTON 
Colville 


Oahu, Hawaii 


Lloyd Neveaux 
Allerd Corbine 
Freddie Miller 


WISCONSIN 
Great Lakes 
Great Lakes 
Menominee 


North Africa 
North Africa 
Guadalcanal 


J. P. Hopkins 


OTHERS 


Pearl Harbor 



Vincent Monroe, Blackfeet, Wounded 



Fred B. Larmer, Sioux, Wounded 



Walter J. Hamiton, Wounded 




31 

A Few Words From Kansas 

By Harold E. Bruce 
Superintendent, Potawatomi Agency 

(Editor's Note: The following article contains excerpts from a speech given 
by Mr. Bruce at the Forty-Eighth Annual Convention of the Kansas Federation of 
Women's Clubs, April 6, 1943. Because of its timeliness and because it reflects the 
war contributions of all Indian tribes, we are reprinting it in this Memorial Day issue.) 

From the Atlantic to the Pacific, wherever they are found, the Indians of the 
United States are making a truly remarkable contribution to our total war effort. 

The story of what the Indians of Kansas are doing is inspiring- -and astonish- 
ing also, when one considers that a segregated group of people who were almost 100 
per cent dependent on work relief projects before Pearl Harbor have thrown off the 
shackles of segregation and dependence and today are outdoing all other elements of 
Kansas population in a tangible expression of genuine patriotism. 

In our training camps from coast to coast, on the seven seas, in Alaska, the 
Aleutians, Australia, Africa, India, England, the islands of the Pacific, and in every 
war zone of activity we know that Kansas Indians are serving with credit and dis- 
tinction. In the production of food, in war industries, in construction of expanded war 
facilities, in the purchase of bonds, in the payment of taxes, and in every obligation 
of loyal American citizenship, our Kansas Indians are holding their own on the home 
front. 

Many Indians unaccustomed to paying taxes are having the experience of pay- 
ing an income tax for the first time because of larger earnings than they have been 
accustomed to. While we do not have the responsibility of helping them prepare their 
returns, I will mention the case of Jake Vanderbloomen, a Potawatomi, to illustrate 
the Indian attitude. During depression years, Jake worked part-time for the Indian 
Division of CCC at $45.00 a month and was then, happy to have a job at all. Today he 
makes $1.50 an hour as a roofer for a construction contractor. 

When Jake visited recently in my office on his way from one job to another, I 
asked him, "Did you get your income tax return in on time?" 

Jake said, "Yes, and I paid for the whole year 1942 in full." 

Then I a&ked, "Weren't you rather foolish to pay all of it when Congress may 
decide to cancel part of the 1942 tax? " 

Jake laughed. "With a wife and two children, I had a $2100 exemption," he 
said, "so I had to pay tax on only $900 of my income. I just figured I'd better pay it 
all while I had the money. If they cancel any 1942 taxes, then I'll be paid ahead on 
1943 taxes and I'll be just that much better off." 

Another story concerns John Nagmo, a Potawatomi, who speaks no English and 
does not read or write. John has talked with many of the Indian soldiers home on fur- 
lough and he is keenly conscious of a world situation he previously did not fully com- 
prehend. He recently summoned all members of the Potawatomi Drum Dance re- 



32 



ligion-- mostly older people- -to a Sunday afternoon meeting to pray for the welfare 
of the Potawatomi Indian soldiers and sailors. Then John Nagmo pleaded eloquently 
for more than an hour to a crowd of 80 people for more gardens, bigger gardens, and 
better gardens. 

Last year Kansas Indians grew over 350 victory gardens. So many people are 
away in war work that this number cannot be increased this year except perhaps in 
size and quality. Helping this year in the food production program are 53 Indian 4-H 
club members who have organized three enthusiastic 4-H clubs. This brings me to 
what I consider one of the most outstanding contributions of Kansas Indians to the to- 
tal war effort- -increased food production. 

Back in 1935, the full-time Indian farmer had become virtually extinct as a 
result of droughts and depression years. Today there are 91 Indians operating full- 
time farm enterprises. In 1942, their sales of livestock, wheat, corn, etc., aggregated 
more than $120,000. Their net farm income exceeded $98,000--an average of more 
than $1,000 per family. It used to be said that an Indian would not take care of a milk 
cow but last year our Indian farmers sold more than $21,000 worth of milk and mar- 
keted $7,000 worth of eggs. 

One would think that the lure of big wages on war construction work would be 
too attractive for many of our farmers to resist, especially in the light of the farm 
labor shortage. We have lost only 3 Indian farmers in this way and this loss is more 
than compensated for by the Indians who have started new farming enterprises. Indian 
women are working in the field to offset the loss of man power. 

This progress in agriculture has been possible through the Indian Reorgani- 
zation Act. Under authority of this legislation, credit loans have been made available 
for farming enterprises through tribal organizations for the Indians of the Kickapoo, 
Iowa and Sac & Fox reservations and more than 1600 acres of improved farm land, 
once in Indian ownership, was purchased back from the white owners for assignment 
to the use of landless Indian farmers. 

Four loan client farmers paid their loans in full in 1942 and of the 48 credit 
loans which still are active, we expect 15 or more farmers to be able to pay off their 
indebtedness to the government in full in 1943, if reasonable crop conditions prevail 
this year. Since few of these loans are for less than $1,000 and some range as high 
as $2,000, this will be a noteworthy accomplishment. 

Let us take the case of Richard Simon as an example. Richard is a full-blood 
Kickapoo Indian and a veteran of the first World War. Two sons of military age were 
inducted into the regular army with the National Guard. The older son now is serving 
somewhere in Alaska. The other son was honorably discharged for physical defects 
and is a welder in a war plant. 

Back in 1938 Richard was a part-time farmer with livestock and equipment 
assets of $380. Since his debts atthat time totalled$280, his networth was only $100. 
His job on an Indian Roads project really supported the home. We made him a loan 
of $1083.51 and started him to farming on a full-time basis. 



33 



Today Richard's cream check will average $60 a month and he sells about 
$20 worth of eggs a month also. Last year Mrs. Simon canned over 300 quarts of 
fruits and vegetables. He has cut his loan balance in half and has enough money to 
his credit in our office from the sale of farm products to pay off all but $120 of the 
original loan. He has built up his livestock assets to a value of $2100 as he now owns 
20 head of dairy cattle, 10 brood sows, 100 laying hens, 3 work horses and has an 
ample supply of grain and hay on hand to feed this stock. 

The success story of Richard Simon is not the outstanding or unusual- - instead 
it is an illustration of what the average hardworking Indian farmer is doing with pride 
and enthusiasm. Kansas Indians of today are among America's most loyal, patriotic 
citizens. They are accepting uncomplainingly every obligation and responsibility im- 
posed upon the people of America by the present war and in promoting the war effort 
so far they have contributed more than their share in men, in food and in personal 
sacrifice. 

A Former Road Engineer 

Superintendent C. C. Wright, Uintah and Ouray Agency, Fort Duchesne, Utah, 
writes that A. P. Pratt, formerly Road Engineer at that jurisdiction, has been com- 
mended for distinguished service at Henderson Field on Guadacanal. The letter ad- 
dressed to high officials inthe5outh Pacific and to Secretary of the Navy Knox recom- 
mending Mr. Pratt for promotion and the Silver Star reads as follows: 

"Lt. Pratt was in charge of construction and maintenance of Henderson Field 
and has conspicuously distinguished himself for gallantry and intrepidity in that he 
led his men in the filling of bomb and shell holes while under fire from enemy bombs. 
His effort resulted in repairing 53 shell and bomb holes in 48 hours in the runway of 
Henderson Field. At no time was there more than an hour when fighter planes could 
not land and take off from the field. The discipline and calmness displayed by Con- 
struction Battalion personnel has been of the highest type and directly due to the 
qualities of leadership displayed by this officer." 

Mr. Pratt entered the Navy as a lieutenant (j.g.) in May, 1942 and was imme- 
diately put in command of his company. Within a short time he was sent to the South 
Pacific. 

Superintendent Wright states, "it is with 'pardonable pride' that we transmit 
this commendation of Mr. Pratt's ability to the Office. I am sure it does credit not 
only to Mr. Pratt but to the Indian Service as a whole and particularly to the Roads 
Division in which he was always so earnestly active." 

THANKS TO OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

For the bulk of the material in this issue we are grateful to the Indian Service 
superintendents and other employees who live and work among the Indians. Although 
it was impossible to give space to all the war contributions of every jurisdiction which 
submitted material, the facts will be useful in answering inquiries from the many 
writers who write for publication outside the Government and in future issues of the 
magazine. Some jurisdictions were notably remiss in submitting any information at 
all on Indians in military service or in war production. "Indians At Work" is now be- 
ing sent to hundreds of Indians overseas, and from their letters, we know that they 
look forward to news of their tribes. 




Ralph Sam, Paiufe 

Even in school days at the Carson Boarding 
School at Stewart, Nevada, Ralph and Don Sam 
were fighters. Both were star football players 
and good boxers. At 128 pounds Don was twice 
champion of Nevada and Ralph reached the finals 
in Pacific Coast amateur boxing matches. Then 
it began to look as if there might be a real fight 
and the boys joined the Army. A year ago, when 
lastheardfromby his friends atCarson, Don Sam 
was in Australia, but in August 1942, the news 
wires were carrying the story of Ralph's last 
heroic fight as a machine gunner on a plane lead- 
ing an attack on Tap shipping off the coast of New 
Guinea. "Yank,' the magazine of fighting Amer- 
ican men all over the world, paid tribute to his 
courage, as did his Government by awarding him, 
posthumously, the Silver Star for gallantry in 
action. 




35 



•V 




Lest We Forget 



While the greater part of this Memorial 
issue is devoted to Indian soldiers who have 
taken part in combat overseas, no less re- 
cognition is given those Indians in the armed 
services who lost their lives while on ac- 
tive duty with military units here in the Uni- 
ted States. 

Reports from Agency Superintendents 
state that these Indian servicemen, whether 
ground crew members who serviced giant 
bombers, or Infantry men preparing for 
foreign duty, were as important to the ef- 
fectiveness of war operations as their fel- 
low-tribesmen in the combat areas. 



Teddy Tahsuda, Comonche 



Staff Sgt. Teddy Tahsuda, Comanche 
from Walters, Oklahoma, lost his life in a 
j£X fire at Hobbs, N. M., February 2, 1943. 
Sergeant Tahsuda, who was 31 years old, 
enlisted in the Army Air Force in 1941 and 
pUS served at Brooks Field, Texas; at the Gun- 
nery School at Las Vega.i, Nevada; the Ad- 
vanced Flying School Squadron, Victorville, 
California, and at the time of his death was 
attached to the Two-Engine Flying Training 
Squadron at Hobbs. He made a splendid record during his enlistment and his command- 
ing officer at Hobbs stated, "Staff Sgt. Tahsuda was a very popular, industrious and 
trusted man, and a fine soldier." Sergeant Tahsuda was a graduate of Haskell Institute 
and also attended Bacone College. His widow, Evelyn Warren Tahsuda, is employed in 
the Chicago office of the Indian Service. 

Staff Sgt. Thomas Robinson, Chippewa from the Great Lakes Agency, was killed 
while on duty with the Army Air Force at Randolph Field, Texas. Private First Class 
Andrew Chisholm, former Haskell student, died in a bomber crash near Boise, Idaho, 
in January 1942. Three Osage service men, John Jacob Mitchell, Roy E. Stone, and 
Peter Wayne Perrier lost their lives in airplane accidents. 

Corporal Joe Tyndall, Omaha, was killed in an airplane crash at Dallas, Texas, 
in the fall of 1942. Charles V. Smith, enrolled at the Consolidated Chippewa Agency, 
was in an airplane accident in April of this year. Sergeant Robert Fulton, Jr., Choctaw, 
died in a bomber crash, and David Williams, Seneca, lost his life in an Army camp 
accident. Sam Cloud, Stockbridge and Spencer Cornelius, Oneida, were victims of 
accidental drowning at a Louisiana training camp, and Pvt. John G. Nevitt, was killed 
in an auto accident in California in April 1942. Other Indian servicemen who died while 
on duty with the U. S. forces include Oscar Hosay, San Carlos Apache, at Fort Bliss, 
November 1942; David Dona, San Carlos Apache, at Fort Haan, California, January 
1943, Mahlon Crouse, Seneca, at Camp Berkeley, Texas, and Pvt. Dallas Kaaiatobe, 
Choctaw. 




TOjfe fe to certify 
tftat 90% or more of tfje employee* of 

Thirty-Five Jurisdictions 

Office of Indian Affairs 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

are regularly mbegtmg at leasst 10% of 
tfje total payroll m 

Unite* States! Wax Catling* Pottos 

THROUGH 

Cfje Voluntary $aproll ^>abmgs( $lan 




War Savings Bond Chairman 
Department of the Interior 



v "Head of Office 
Secretary of the Interior 



37 

A Record of War Bond Purchases 

By Jeanne Clark 
A few days after Pearl Harbor a Navajo Indian, Hosteen Bahe, his wife and 
his daughter trudged to the reservation office at Window Rock - opened a cigar box 
and counted out $350 in silver and currency and then used the entire amount to pur- 
chase War Bonds. 

This stolid determination to help fight the Japanese and Nazis has been re- 
peated often at the Navajo Reservation - from the single $25 bond purchases to the 
recent $20,000 investment by Chee Dodge, Navajo tribal chairman. Several instances 
were noted where the Indians brought their money to the Bond center and left without 
asking for certificates. They were ready to give - not loan - their money to the Gov- 
ernment. 

Since the United States declared war on the Axis - and for many months be- 
fore - not only the Navajos but Indians from many other tribes have invested their 
savings in War Bonds and thus have shown their faith in the Government. Most of 
them experience a genuine thrill from ownership of the Bonds and an example of the 
pride with which the Indians regard this ownership was told by Superintendent H. £. 
Bruce of Potawatomi Agency, Kansas. 

Paul McKinney, a Potawatomi employed at Topeka, was recently hospitalized 
for several weeks. There were large doctor and hospital bills to pay but when his 
wife was asked, "How many of your bonds did you redeem for Paul's operation?" she 
answered proudly, "We didn't sell any of our bonds. That's money we're going to 
keep where we can't spend it." 

There are hundreds of instances which might show how the Indians, including 
many young men in the armed forces, are doing their part in the purchase of War 
Bonds. A young seaman in the Navy, Donald Frazler, Sioux from Cheyenne River, 
has over $1,000 invested which he hopes will pay for his college education after the 
war. Even children in government Indian schools have organized War Stamp clubs 
and are thrilled when the books are filled and redeemed for Bonds. 

Last September children at the Pipestone Indian School organized a Victory 
Stamp Club and earned money for purchase of the stamps by collecting scrap metal 
and doing daily chores for the Superintendent and other Indian Service employees. 
George Skye, a Chippewa from Superior, Wisconsin, has earned over $28. J. W. 
Balmer, Superintendent of the school, recently wrote: "it has to be taken into con- 
sideration that a large number of the members of this club are orphaned children who 
by their own efforts have earned every dime that they have put in for the purchase of 
Bonds or Stamps. The action taken by this club is commendable as it means a sacri- 
fice by each member. They could very readily spend their savings for things that 
they need quite badly." 

The amount of Bonds Indians are buying through the Pay Roll Savings Plan 
and other methods which have not been officially noted by the Indian Service is diffi- 
cult to estimate. However, knowing the intense patriotism of the Indian it is certain 
that the great majority are investing at least 10% of their earnings. 

An appeal to all employees of the Indian Service and other divisions of the De- 
partment to participate in the Pay Roll Savings Plan was made by Secretary of the 
Interior Harold L. Ickes in a recent memorandum to personnel in Washington and in 



38 

the field. The message urged employees to make additional purchases of War Bonds 
during the Second War Loan Campaign and to increase their Pay Roll Savings auth- 
orizations. 

"The goal of the Pay Roll Deduction Plan, that of reaching 90% employee par- 
ticipation and at least 10% allotment of gross pay rolls, has not been attained in this 
Department after eight months' operation of the plan," the Secretary said. "Through 
March we registered 81.3% employee participation and 8.5% allotment of gross pay 
rolls." 

At the end of April, 35field units of the Indian Service had earned honor cer- 
tificates for participation in the plan. Agencies and field offices that merited the 
award are: 

Blackfeet Agency, Montana; Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, Oklahoma; Chey- 
enne River Agency, South Dakota; Chilocco School, Oklahoma; Flandreau School, 
South Dakota; Fort Apache Agency, Arizona; Fort Hall Agency, Idaho; Grand Ronde- 
Siletz Agency, Oregon; Great Lakes Agency, Wisconsin; Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma, 
Mescalero Agency, New Mexico; Mission Agency, California; Osage Agency, Okla- 
homa; Phoenix Sanatorium, Arizona; San Carlos Agency, Arizona; Sequoyah Training 
School, Shawnee Agency, and Shawnee Sanatorium, Oklahoma; Sherman Institute, 
California, Tongue River Agency, Montana; Tulalip Agency, Washington; Wahpeton 
School, North Dakota; San Francisco Warehouse and San Francisco Irrigation Office, 
California; Flathead Irrigation Project, Montana; Choctaw Agency, Mississippi; Has- 
kell Institute, Kansas; Menominee Agency, Wisconsin; Cherokee Agency, North Caro- 
lina; St. Louis Warehouse, Missouri; Yakima Agency, Washington; Wind River Agency, 
Wyoming; Crow Creek Agency, South Dakota; and Consolidated Ute Agency, Colorado. 

The liaison office at Washington has 100% participation in the plan and 9.93% 
gross salary deductions. The Chicago Office average is 93.66% participation and 
9.19% of gross salaries. Units within the Chicago Office with 100% participation and 
over 10% salary deductions are Tribal Relations, Information, Health, Forestry, 
Construction, and CCC-ID. 

Treasury and War Bond purchases made by Indians through the Office of In- 
dian Affairs total over five million dollars. This figure includes only monies de- 
posited for individual accounts and is exclusive of tribal funds which are already 
drawing interest from the U. S. Treasury. It also does not take into account the 
great number of Indians who buy bonds which are not registered or recorded at the 
Office. 

Group investments in Treasury Bonds include the following: Five Tribes 
Oklahoma, $900,000; Osage, Oklahoma, $800,000; Quapaw, Oklahoma, $150,000 
Northern Idaho, $100,000; Pawnee, Oklahoma, $75,000; Fort Hall, Jdaho, $40,000 
Cheyenne and Arapaho, Oklahoma, $35,000; Pine Ridge, South Dakota, $50,000 
Klamath, Oregon, $100,000; Cheyenne River, South Dakota, $100,000; Shawnee, Okla- 
homa, $25,000. 

Individual investments at Quapaw Agency totaled $341,500; at Blackfeet Agen- 
cy, Montana, $3,000; and at Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, $500. A re-investment of 
$2,185,500 was made recently for certain individuals of the Five Tribes Agency 
whose original bonds were recalled by the Treasury for redemption. 




Pfc. Clement R Crazy Thunder, Pine Ridge Sioux, is a Paramarine. 




The Joneses and Attu 

By Edna Portwood 

Cold winds sweep over Attu - just as they did 
when the 45 natives of that little island hunted and 
fished, built homes, raised their families and went 
to church. But the activities there are less peace- 
ful now. The Japs occupied Attu on June 7, 1942 
and since then nothing has been heard of the for- 
mer inhabitants - the natives and C. Foster Jones 
and his wife, Etta, who went to Attu in August 1943, 
Jones to operate the radio station and Mrs. Jones 
to teach. The elderly couple had known when they 
accepted the post that their work would be ardu- 
ous, that there would be almost no contact with 
the outside world except by radio, that the mail 
boat came through three or four times a year at 
most, that there was no doctor within hundreds of 
miles - but they accepted with enthusiasm. The 
pioneering spirit was in their blood. 

Jones had gone to Alaska before the turn of 
the twentieth century, and before he was 21. Born 
in St. Paris, Ohio, in 1879, he left there at 18 to 
go to Puget Sound University, at Tacoma, Wash., 
where he studied pharmacy for a few months. But 
the Yukon called and the next thirty years found 
him prospecting and hunting in the Far North. 
Occasionally he worked for the Government on 
temporary construction jobs and at Tanana on 
such a job he met EttaSchureman - whose desire 
to serve others matched Jones' spirit of adven- 
ture. Etta Schureman had left her farm home in 
Connecticut to attend normal school at New Bri- 
tain, and upon receipt of a teaching certificate, 
she taught grade school for five years. Not con- 
tent with teaching alone, she studied nursing three 
years in Philadelphia, and after 12 years of nurs- 
ing and social service in Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burg, she accepted a teaching position in Alaska. 
That was in 1923. She was a good teacher and 
when she married C. Foster Jones they became 
one of the best husband and wife teams in the 
Alaska Indian Service. (For many isolated posts 
in Alaska it is desirable that both husband and 
C.Foster Jones wife be qualified for appointment). Before going 

to Attu they had served at Kipnuk and Old Harbor, coastal towns, remarkable mainly 
for their remoteness from civilization. It was a background of excellent perform- 
ance under conditions of hardship that led to their appointment as teacher and spec- 
ial assistantwhen the Indian Service established a school at Attu, the very last of the 
Aleutian Islands stretching far into the Bering Sea. 




They arrived in August 1941, and Mrs. 
Jones first letter to the General Superinten- 
dent at Juneau is one of the finest descriptions 
we have of the brave people of Attu: 

"There are forty-five people in the vil- 
lage. They are progressive, intelligent, clean 
and friendly. They live and work as a com- 
munity, making their living from blue fox trap- 
ping. They operate as The Native Community 
of Attu, pooling the season-s catch of pelts, 
and selling them in the name of the community 
to a fur dealer in New York. The proceeds, 
after ten dollars for each skin is taken out for 
the trappers, is divided equally among all 
members of the village, children included. 
Thus widows and helpless ones are taken care 
of. There are no indigents here. 

"The houses are models for construc- 
tion, neatness, and furnishings. There are 
nine houses, having from four to seven rooms Mrs. C. Foster Jones 

each, well lighted, and beautifully painted inside and out. All have excellent stoves, 
good linoleum on floors, gas lamps, and all but one have running water piped into the 
house from a spring. The yards are neat, all refuse being carefully disposed of. The 
American flag, flying from the village flagpole was one of the first sights which 
greeted us as we came into the harbor on the Coast Guard Cutter, Atlanta. They have 
a beautiful Greek Orthodox church, electrically lighted by means of a small light 
plant. 

"For all this the villagers give credit to their trader, Mr. Schroeder. We 
have not met Mr. Schroeder and all the following information about him comes from 
the people themselves. He has been trading with them for twenty years, and when he 
first came to them they lived in grass barabaras, used skin bidarkas, had very little 
food and clothing, and were generally poor and miserable. Even their church was a 
grass hut. There was just one house and one stove in the entire village. Mr. 
Schroeder helped them to get a lease for a fox farm on Agattu Island, about twenty- 
five miles from here. They stocked it with blue fox taken from Attu Island. From 
Agattu Island has come most of their income every since. 

"The first year Agattu produced only sixteen skins, but Mr. Schroeder car- 
ried them through the year just the same, as he has done with other poor years since 
then. On the other hand there have been very good years. From Agattu alone they 
got five hundred pelts each year for two years. Mr. Schroeder brought in lumber and 
furnishings for them and personally directed the building of houses and church. He 
bought outboard motors and helped them with their dories. Everv family now has a 
dory run by an outboard motor, and there is plenty of gas to run them. He presented 
the church with their light plant. He has taught them English, and insisted that they 
use it. They all speak a little English, much to our astonishment considering their 
extreme isolation. People from occasional boats which stop here are the only ones 



42 



outside the village they see. He encourages them to order supplies one year ahead, 
and his prices, considering high freight rates and difficulties and dangers of deliver- 
ies, do not seem exorbitant. Some of the current prices: flour - $3.00 per 50-lb. 
sack; sugar - $1.25 per 10-lb. sack; milk - 10 cents per can; canned fruit, No. 2-1/2, 
- 35 cents per can. He does not sell them liquor or useless trinkets. They all con- 
sider him a friend. He seems to have raised their standard of living without spoiling 
their native culture. 

"The interest in basket making seems to be waning. The women say they 
sell only to the men on fishing boats and Coast Guard cutters who stop in this harbor. 
There is, or has been no other market for them. They do not accept anything that is 
offered for their baskets, but have fixed prices, ten, fifteen, and twenty dollars ac- 
cording to size and quality. We are doing all we can to stimulate interest in the bas- 
kets, and during the past week the women have been out on long grass hunting trips, 
sometimes staying several days. 

"The villagers have used the school room for dances on various occasions 
but have left everything in good condition. Written on the blackboard we found the 
chief's orders; 'Pealse dont spate on the Flower and Dont brake loking Gleese.' 
(windows). They are cooperative and helpful in all work concerning the school. All 
want to help without pay when there is building or lifting or special work to do. They 
have an abundance of all kinds of fish and the boys are generous with their gifts of 
fish. At first we paid them, but the chief asked us not to pay. The boys themselves 
made that request. They have plenty of fish and they wanted their gifts to be free. 

' 'They are proud people. There has been no intermingling with the Japanese. In 
fact, they dislike and distrust the Japs. They accuse them of stealing their foxes, and 
even of killing some of their trappers years ago. But for three years they haven't 
seen a Jap or a Japanese boat," 

On December 27, 1941, Mr. Jones wrote to Juneau making plans for the future 
and suggesting the possibility of starting a herd of reindeer on Attu as a source of 
food and clothing for the natives. His mention of possible danger was casual: "So 
far all has gone well at Attu. No Japs have as yet put in an appearance." 

According to Don Pickard and his wife who before the Japanese Army occupied 
Attu, operated a boat between Attu and Dutch Harbor, Jones had plans for any Japs 
wno might land at their little islana. He had a rifle and a shotgun and an army - which 
consisted of possibly «a dozen able-bodied native men - and was ready to fight it out 
if tne Japs came. The Japs did come. No one knows what happened - whether the Attu 
Islanders resisted and died trying to defend their homes, whether they tried to es- 
cape to one of the other islands, or whether they were taken prisoner by the Japs 
whom they disliked long before Pearl Harbor. 

The heavy fogs hang over Attu and keep the secret, but the new occupants 
will not find their stay pleasant nor will they stay long, we hope. Recently the U. S. 
Army fortified an island 63 miles from Kiska - the Japs present stronghold in Amer- 
ica - several hundred miles east of Attu. 

Until the facts are known, we can only pray that the people of Attu are still 
alive and perhaps will one day return to resume their rigorous way of life. And the 
Jones' - perhaps they too will return to bleak Attu - to finish a job they had just be- 
gun. 



43 

Science And The Future 

By D'Arcy McNickle (Flathead Indian), Administrative Assistant 
and Willard W. Beatty, Director of Indian Education. 

After a year of intensive work in which many employees of the Indian Ser- 
vice have actively participated, the Committee on Human Development of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago held a ten-day seminar early in March to pull together the threads 
of the research on Indian personality. Several representatives of the Indian Service 
from the Pine Ridge, Hopi, Navajo, Pueblo, and Papago jurisdictions where the study 
has been going forward, joined members of the resident staff who have been analyzing 
the field reports and tests in Chicago. For the first time we were able to weigh the 
results of the weary extra hours which teachers and other employees in the Indian 
Service have given to interviews, tests, and write-ups, at times with the discouraging 
feeling that the whole program might be pointless. To revert to the simile of the 
blind men and the elephant, the description of tail, trunk, tusk, and leg began at last 
to emerge as a full-grown elephant. 

For ten days the specialists working independently with each phase of the 
study presented the conclusions independently drawn from an analysis of one or an- 
other portion of the data. Toward the close, these analyses as they applied to a group 
of four selected children were presented in parallel columns on the blackboard. In 
one column was the picture of these four individuals as derived from a study of the 
results of the Rohrschach tests. Beside it was the analysis of these same persons 
derived wholly from the life history record. In the adjoining column was a report 
drawn from the Thematic Apperception tests and so on. At times it appeared, from 
listening to the individual reports, that exceedingly weighty conclusions were being 
based on very slender evidence but when the results were all recorded and compared, 
they showed extraordinarily close agreement. It reminded one of the accuracy of en- 
gineering calculations which permit workers to tunnel from opposite sides of a moun- 
tain or river and meet at a pre-determined point. In this case eight tunnels went 
forward simultaneously in material as obdurate and unpredictable as human person- 
ality. That they could all emerge together and arrive at even a rough approximation 
of an acceptable generalization, is important news. 

In the months ahead the mountains of data must be submitted to tne same 
type of analysis which was applied in March to a few sample cases. As the results 
take shape they will be prepared for publication. Four types of document are contem- 
plated: 

1. A series of five monographs, one on each tribe studied, which 
will present the scientific data in as readable a form as possible. 

2. Many separate articles growing out of phases of the research 
for publication in scientific journals. 

3. A major publication on the application of the results of the 
research to problems of Indian education and administration. 

4. A more general treatise in popular language. 

It would be premature to write definitively now of the ways in which this re- 
search may serve Indian administration, and possibly international administration in 
the post-war world, but having tested the techniques of research and found them suc- 
cessful thus far, it is enough to say that our Indian Service workers are contributing 
to a study which may be of utmost significance. 



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